Tag - solar pv

From SAND to Solar Panel

How are Solar Panels made ? Steps & Production assembly.

How are solar panels made ?


Solar power technology is not a recent development; in fact, it dates back to the mid-1800s to the industrial revolution when solar energy plants were developed to heat water that created steam to drive machinery. Continue reading below for a brief solar panel history.

From SAND to Solar Panel

Solar Industry Supply chain starts from SAND. SolarOcta info graphic makes it easy to understand how solar panels are made.

Solar panel history

In 1839 Alexandre Edmond Becquerel discovered the photovoltaic effect which explains how electricity can be generated from sunlight. He claimed that “shining light on an electrode submerged in a conductive solution would create an electric current.” However, even after much research and development subsequent to the discovery, photovoltaic power continued to be very inefficient and solar cells were used mainly for the purposes of measuring light.

Over 100 years later, in 1941, Russell Ohl invented the solar cell, shortly after the invention of the transistor.

How solar panels work

Light (photons) striking certain compounds, in particular, metals, causes the surface of the material to emit electrons. Light striking other compounds causes the material to accept electrons. It is the combination of these two compounds that can be made use of to cause electrons to flow through a conductor, and thereby create electricity. This phenomenon is called the photo-electric effect. Photovoltaic (or PV) means sunlight converted into a flow of electrons (electricity).


Solar power is a rapidly developing energy source in Australia and around the world. The potential for using the sun to directly supply our power needs is huge.

Solar panels can generate electricity without any waste or pollution, or dependence on the Earths natural resources once they are constructed. They have no moving parts so modules are very reliable and have a long lifespan. Solar panels are relatively easy to install and are very low maintenance.

A useful characteristic of solar photovoltaic power generation is that it can be installed on any scale as opposed to conventional forms of power generation that require large scale plant and maintenance.

Solar panels can be installed to generate power where it is needed, which removes the need to transport and distribute electricity over long distances to remote areas.



How SolarOcta 3D Solar Design Simulation Philosophy Works ?

SolarOcta 3D Simulation– Rooftop Solar Design Philosophy!

Designing a Good Solar PV power plant is the most important part of Installation.

This is a 3D simulation video of a 7KWp installed capacity Solar PV plant Setup using Elevated Structure SolarOcta Canopy Design at a Commercial location in New Delhi by SolarOcta.

This Project had a huge 12-meter high wall on 150-degree azimuth which was hindering our client from opting for Solar Plant on his roof, with our design expertise, we overcame this obstacle of large shadow on the rooftop and completed the project successfully on time.

This is a 3D simulation video of a 5KWp installed capacity Solar Photovoltaic plant Setup at a Farmhouse location in Gurugram by SolarOcta.

We prepare and Install our Solar Power Plants using Pin Drop Accuracy Models prepared using powerful         3D simulation tools such as Autocad, Sketchup Pro, Google Earth Pro, Pvsyst, Helioscope, PVsol, skelion, Archelios & many more.

All our Projects in Solar Rooftop Industry are implemented for Residential, Institutional & commercial Solar Installation – Call us Today.

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We Take Emence Pride in our Solar Rooftop Power Plant Design Expertise and Implementation of the Project Feasibility Before Investments.

Our Design Simulations Provide Consumers with a better understanding of their Rooftop or Groundmount Space being Utilized to Full Potential to Harness the Maximum Solar Power From Shadow Free Area, Ensuring Maximum ROI (return on Investment) within described Time Period of 3-4 years of Project Installation.

This month of August We are Providing With Free Site Survey to all clientele in Delhi NCR for Residential, Institutional & commercial Electricity consumers.

Opt for Solar Rooftop Power Plant Installation Today.[booking]


What is the cost of 1 kWh solar system in India?

high quality array costruction

10 KWp SolarOcta Solar power plant , setup at an institutional premises.

Cost of 1 Kw 
solar power plant in India ranges in cost from ₹50,000 to ₹120,000 depending on components used.
To Explain Further,

In simple terms, it’s like buying a bike, you can get a hero cd dawn which costs 39k or you can buy a high class premium bike like royal enfield classic which costs ₹ 1.45 lakh.

it all comes down to functionality of the SPV system.

components can be divided as economy brands & premium brands.

economy brands comprising of manufacturers of panels & inverters, companies which are less than 5 yrs old (Indian & international make)

premium brands – of components, with presence in continents

eg – Chinese , German & Japanese make

with facilities existing for more than 10 years.

Any type of system you opt would deliver 1 Kwp of power when commissioned for live power generation, but in the end it all boils down to your choice,

you either buy a samsung mobile phone or an iphone, basic function of it is to make a call.

Solar rooftop canopy

this is an Economy budget, under construction – 5 KWp solar PV power plant.

In my opinion, one should opt for best configuration of Solar panels, Inverters, cables & mounting structure, for once it is fixed on your rooftop or landmark, the system carries a 25 year + age for power generation & you will get the return for your investment in maximum of 5-6 years no matter how expensive brands you opt for, and after those 5 years, the system is basically generating you money while being parked on your rooftop.

Cost of 1KW Solar Power Plant system can be split as

Solar Photovoltaic Panels (mono/poly crystalline)

range ₹25 to ₹55 per Watt.

(here the cost can also go upwards till ₹150/watt, depending on the technology you opt, HIT, PERC, N/P type, BIPV, cdte Etc)

Solar inverter – 3 types

1.Grid tie – ₹6 to ₹10 per watt.

2.Off grid – ₹9 to ₹14 per watt.

3.hybrid inverter – ₹10 to ₹15 per watt

BOS of SPV system –

Cables – ₹7 to ₹8 per watt

mounting frames – you can play with custom aesthetically pleasing designs for Mounting your Solar panels to harness sunlight, provide shade & also increase the appeal of your installation.

cost ranges from ₹7 – ₹10 to ₹ your desired design.

In the end i would like to tell you a secret about Solar EPC industry,

Don’t just opt for a solar power plant installation based on the lowest cost fot installation,

this is the future, & you are investing a good amount of money in it, learn about it, ask a lot of questions & choose for your self, because it’s your asset you are buying,

so instead of settling for a hero bike, better buy a moto gp Ducati bike, even if you don’t have the money to buy one, loans are easy for Solar installation.

and the reason that your loan would be paid of in under 6 years from your energy bill savings, so it’s better to buy the best money can buy in this Solar sector.

We Love to teach people about  Sustainable development & the future of clean technologies, With 100% Sure Returns Far Far Greater in Terms of Monetary Aspects, than any other Stocks, Mutual Funds, FD’s , Take into Account the Independence from Utility Power & Environmental impact of your Actions.

If you are curious to learn more, Comment Down Below to Engage in a Discussion for your Clean Power Investment.
Like/Share/ Spread The word to Solar Energy Enthusiasts, Become a Part Of our Facebook Community.

SolarOcta Energy Services LLP  Begun It’s Journey in 7th semester of college to bring Solar utility products & services that were not offered in India, thus we offer complete solutions for anyone & everyone to take everyone aboard the Electric future shift.


Working Principle of Solar Panels ? Solar PV ?

With Developing Renewable Energy sources ,
The most Famous one is a Solar PV panel,
Also referred as Solar Plate.

What is a Solar PV cell and How Does it Work ?
It involves Some Neat Physics , Chemistry and Mathematical Trick .

Let’s Learn how !


Conversion of light energy in electrical energy is based on a phenomenon called photovoltaic effect.
Thus the name – Solar PV –
PV means Photo Voltaics !

When semiconductor materials are exposed to light, the some of the photons of light ray are absorbed by the semiconductor crystal which causes significant number of free electrons in the crystal.

This is the basic reason of producing electricity due to photovoltaic effect.

Photovoltaic cell is the basic unit of the system where photovoltaic effect is utilized to produce electricity from light energy. Silicon is the most widely used semiconductor material for constructing photovoltaic cell.

The silicon atom has four valence electrons. In a solid crystal, each silicon atom shares each of its four valence electrons with another nearest silicon atom hence creating covalent bond between them.

In this way silicon crystal gets a tetrahedral lattice structure. While light ray strikes on any materials some portion of light is reflected, some portion is transmitted through the materials and rest is absorbed by the materials.

Same thing happens when light falls on silicon crystal. If the intensity of incident light is high enough, sufficient numbers of photons are absorbed by the crystal and these photons in turn excite some of the electrons of covalent bonds.
These excited electrons then get sufficient energy to migrate from valence band to conduction band. As the energy level of these electrons is in conduction band they leave from the covalent bond leaving a hole in the bond behind each removed electron.

Too much to understand ,
Read Further,

These are called free electrons move randomly inside the crystal structure of the silicon. These free electrons and holes have vital role in creating electricity in photovoltaic cell.
These electrons and holes are hence called light-generated electrons and holes respectively.

These light generated electrons and holes cannot produce electricity in the silicon crystal alone. There should be some additional mechanism to do that.

When a pentavalent impurity such as phosphorus is added to silicon the four valence electrons of each pentavalent phosphorous atom are shared through covalent bond with four neighbor silicon atoms and fifth valence electron does not get any chance to create covalent bond.

This fifth electron then relatively loosely bounded with its parent atom.
Even in room temperature the thermal energy available in the crystal is large enough to disassociate these relatively loose fifth electrons from their parent phosphorus atom. While this fifth relatively loose electron is disassociated from parent phosphorus atom, the phosphorous atom immobile positive ions.

The said disassociated electron becomes free but does not have any incomplete covalent bond or hole in the crystal to be re-associated. These free electrons come from pentavalent impurity are always ready to conduct current in semiconductor.

there are numbers of free electrons but still the substance is electrically neutral as the number of positive phosphorous ions locked inside the crystal structure is exactly equal to the number of the free electrons come out from them.

The process of inserting impurities in the semiconductor is known as doping and the impurities are doped are known as dopants. The pentavalent dopants which donate their fifth free electron to the semiconductor crystal are known as donor. The semiconductors doped by donor impurities are known as n-type or negative type semiconductor as there are plenty of free electrons which are negatively charged by nature.

When instead pentavalent phosphorous atoms, trivalent impurity atoms like boron are added to a semiconductor crystal totally opposite type of semiconductor will be created.
In this case some silicon atoms in the crystal lattice will be replaced by boron atoms in other words the boron atoms will occupy the positions of replaced silicon atoms in lattice structure. Three valance electrons of boron atom will pair with valance electron of three neighbor silicon atoms to create three complete covalent bonds.
For this configuration there will be a silicon atom for each boron atom, fourth valance electron of which will not find any neighbor valance electrons to complete its fourth covalent bond.

Hence this fourth valance electron of these silicon atoms remains unpaired and behaves as incomplete bond. So there will be lack of one electron in the incomplete bond and hence an incomplete bond always attracts electron to fulfill this lack. As such there is a vacancy for electron to sit.

This vacancy is conceptually called positive hole.

Check this Video out

In a trivalent impurity doped semiconductor a significant number of covalent bonds are continually broken to complete other incomplete covalent bond.

When one bond is broken one hole is created in it.

When one bond in completed, the hole in it disappears.

In this way one hole appears to disappear another neighbor hole. As such holes are having relative motion inside the semiconductor crystal.

In the view of that it can said that holes also can move freely as free electrons inside semiconductor crystal.

As each of the holes can accept electron, the trivalent impurities are known as acceptor dopants and the semiconductors doped with acceptor dopants are known as p-type or positive type semiconductor.

In n-type semiconductor mainly the free electrons carry negative charge and in p-type semiconductor mainly the holes in turn carry positive charge therefore free electrons in n-type semiconductor and free holes in p-type semiconductor are called majority carrier in n-type semiconductor and p-type semiconductor respectively.

There is always a potential barrier between n-type and p-type material.

This potential barrier is essential for working of a photovoltaic or solar cell.

While n-type semiconductor and p-type semiconductor contact each other, the free electrons near to the contact surface of n-type semiconductor get plenty of adjacent holes of p-type material.

Hence free electrons in n type semiconductor near to its contact surface jump to the adjacent holes of p-type material to recombine. Not only free electrons, valence electrons of n-type material near the contact surface also come out from the covalent bond and recombine with more nearby holes in p-type semiconductor.

As the covalent bonds are broken, there will be number of holes created in n-type material near the contact surface.

near contact zone the holes in the p-type materials disappear due to recombination on the other hand holes appear in n-type material near same contact zone. This is as such equivalent to a migration of holes from p-type to n-type semiconductor. So as soon as one n-type semiconductor and one p-type semiconductor come into contact the electrons from n-type will transfer to p-type and holes from p-type will transfer to n-type. The process is very fast but does not continue forever. After some instant there will be layer of negative charge (excess electrons) in the p-type semiconductor adjacent to the contact along the contact surface. Similarly there will be a layer of positive charge (positive ions) in the n-type semiconductor adjacent to contact along the contact surface. The thickness of these negative and positive charge layer increases up to a certain extend but after that no more electrons will migrate from n-type semiconductor to p-type semiconductor. This is because, while any electron of n-type semiconductor try to migrate over p-type semiconductor it faces a sufficiently thick layer of positive ions in n-type semiconductor itself where it will drop without crossing it. Similarly hole will no more migrate to n-type semiconductor from p-type. The holes when try to cross the negative layer in p-type semiconductor these will recombine with electrons and no more movement toward n-type region.

In other words, negative charge layer in p-type side and positive charge layer in n-type side together form a barrier which opposes migration of charge carriers from its one side to other. Similarly, holes in the p-type region are held back from entering the n-type region. Due to positive and negative charged layer there will be an electric field across the region and this region is called depletion layer.

Now let us come to the silicon crystal. When light ray strikes on the crystal some portion of the light is absorbed by the crystal and consequently some of the valance electrons are excited and come out from the covalent bond resulting free electron-hole pairs.

If light strikes on n-type semiconductor the electrons from such light-generated electron-hole pairs are unable to migrate to p-region since they are not able to cross the potential barrier due to repulsion of electric field across depletion layer. At the same time the light-generated holes cross the depletion region due to attraction of electric field of depletion layer where they recombine with electrons and then the lack of electrons here is compensated by valance electrons of p-region and this makes as many number of holes in the p-region. As such light generated holes are shifted to p-region where they are trapped because once they come to the p-region cannot be able to come back to n-type region due to repulsion of potential barrier.

As the negative charge (light generated electrons) is trapped in one side and positive charge (light generated holes) is trapped in opposite side of a cell there will be a potential difference between these two sides of the cell. This potential difference is typically 0.5 V.

This is how a photovoltaic cells or solar cells produce potential difference.

This was a article, for how a Silicon based solar cell works .

Heard about Mono crystalline & poly crystalline ?
we’ll be covering those cells next .

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