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Author - Rohit Arora

Gurugram MCG opts 100 Electric Bus for City’s public transport Network !

at smart cities expo 2018
New Delhi , India

The Board of Directors of Gurugram Metropolitan City Bus Limited (GMCBL) will add 100 hundred electric buses to the streets of Gurugram soon. By virtue of their hub and spoke modus operandi, electric buses seem to be the only immediately implementable electric vehicle technology in India. Despite the fact that they cost almost 3-4 times more than a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) buses, their impact on the environment has urged the government to issue a large number of incentive schemes to encourage manufacturers and local governors to make and sell buses cheaply to government authorities in India.

Thus far, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Manali, Kolkata and Bangalore have gone the electric transport way under the government’s FAME (Faster Adoption of Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles). As a part of the National Electric Mobility Mission Plan, FAME has a corpus of about US$ 123 million (Rs 800 crore) to invest in electric mobility based initiatives. This fund was allocated for the duration of two years and will expire in April 2017. However, an extension is being requested. DHI is considering all proposals on priority.

Gurugram is the latest to get on the electric bus brigade adding 100 buses to the streets with deliberation, setting a target of another 300 by mid-next year, bringing the grand total to 400 buses in Gurugram by mid-2019. Gurugram ’s booming cyber city is home to thousands of young-urban professionals in need of reliable and comfortable last mile connectivity, a task that these 100 electric buses will set out to complete. Of the first lot of buses to be added for 100 electric AC buses and 100 non-AC low floor buses have been made in the requisite. GMCBL intend to bring the total to 400 Electric buses that will ply the streets of Gurugram by next year. And while the tenders have not been awarded yet, expect the usual list of contenders the likes of, BYD-Goldstone, Tata, Mahindra and Ashok Leyland to compete for the manufacture and these Electric buses.

The Government of India unveiled National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020 to accelerate the growth of the electric and hybrid components of the automotive sector. It focuses primarily on fast-tracking the manufacturing and introduction of EVs in India. The Department of Heavy Industries (DHI) had launched FAME (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles) in April 2015 to promote manufacturing of electric and hybrid vehicles in India. Both schemes in conjecture should, in theory, see us meet our target of 30% Electrification by 2030,

Recently We visited the Smart Cities Expo & Saw the BYD Electric Bus , that is being used all over China , the product is brought to India in Partnership with Goldstone Infra PVT LTD .
a Quick walk through of the Electric bus can we watched here

News Via Financial Express 

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Subsidy upto Rs. 50 lakhs for buying an Electric vehicles in India, Central Govt Policy 2018!

Showcased at Smart cities expo 2018 .

As part of a Rs 9,400-crore package for hybrid vehicles and Electric Vehicles in India, the government may offer incentives of up to Rs 2.5 lakh to those scrapping old petrol- or diesel-fired vehicles along with sops for investment to manufacture parts such as motors in the country.

What this subsidy means is that electric car buyers will get a rebate of up to Rs. 2 lakh from the government, which wants more people to buy electric cars rather than the ones running on petrol or diesel. The Indian government also plans to support electric two-wheelers by offering a rebate of up to Rs. 30,000, on purchase, to buyers. However, these rebates do come with terms and conditions.

The government plans to give 50,000 electric car owners, the Rs. 2 lakh rebate but cars bought under this scheme cannot have a price of more than Rs. 15 lakh. Similarly, the Rs. 30,000 rebate for high-speed electric two-wheelers is for 1.5 lakh owners, but the two wheelers need to be priced below Rs. 1.5 lakh, to be eligible for this scheme. For low-speed, electric two-wheelers, the government will offer a Rs. 20,000 rebate, but here again, the maximum price of the two-wheeler has been capped to the sub-Rs1 lakh mark.

The same sops will be available to individuals buying electric cars provided theyscrap their pre-BS III vehicles + and get a certificate from the approved scrapping centre, sources told TOI.

While the sops for passenger vehicles and two-wheelers are expected to cost around Rs 1,500 crore over the next five years, around Rs 1,000 crore spending is planned to set up charging stations across the country.

According to the proposal circulated by the department of heavy industries (DHI), at least one charging point is planned every 9 sq km in all metros, million-plus cities and identified smart cities while a charging station on both sides of the highway is planned every 25 km along the Delhi-Jaipur, Delhi-Chandigarh, Chennai-Bengaluru and Mumbai-Pune stretches.

Check out a tour of Tata Tigor Electric Vehicle in India from our Visit to 4th Smart Cities Expo 

One of the major focus areas of phase-II of Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid & Electric) Vehicles (FAME) will be on public and intermediary transport, which include taxis and three-wheelers. The plan awaiting the government approval is expected to come as a major setback to the automobile industry, which wanted sops for all types of electric vehicles in India. The industry is working out its strategy based on the assumption that the government will offer incentives to make electric vehicles more attractive.

The demand incentive will cover a little over five lakh electric vehicles and over 80% of these will be twoand three-wheelers. The government plans to spend about Rs 5,800 crore to push demand for electric vehicles to “reduce the cost” of such vehicles to make them affordable.

A section in the government, however, is of the view that the entire incentive scheme, covering around five lakh vehicles, is only 0.5% of the country’s current annual vehicle production. “If the target is to reduce emission of greenhouse gases, should we not focus on improving public transport by deploying more buses running on cleaner fuel?” asked an official.
For the same amount (Rs 5,800 crore), at least 50 lakh buses can be run across the country, on the lines of orange buses in Delhi, on ‘operation-expenditure model’, sources said.
This scheme will also be offered to three-wheelers, buses, trucks and light commercial vehicles. All in all, the Indian government hopes that such discount schemes/rebates on electric vehicles will entice buyers to opt for these vehicles. Moreover, the government is in the process of reducing GST on batteries for electric vehicles, which is likely to make electric vehicles in India cheaper than before. Such rebates are also likely to encourage car and two-wheeler makers to come up with more attractively priced electric vehicles.

For now, the electric car space in India has just two offerings, both from Mahindra Electric. The E2O 4-door is one such offering while the other is the eVerito. Tata Motors is likely to introduce the electric variants of the Tiago and Tigor soon. Next year, Hyundai plans to bring in the Kona Electric SUV. Mahindra’s future plans include the electric variants of the KUV100, the XUV Aero and the S201 compact SUV. Maruti also has plans to enter this space in 2020, with a new electric car developed in collaboration with Toyota.

To know more Comment Down below & share your opinions !

 

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Celebrate EARTH day Everyday ! One Earth, One Home .

EARTH day 2018 with SolarOcta

Every April 22nd, millions of people around the world celebrate Earth Day, and We are one of them here in India.
Earth Day is an opportunity for all of us to reflect on how we can make our Earth a better place; to be more mindful of our impact on the Earth and challenge ourselves to adopt new, environmentally friendly habits that conserve resources, save money, and encourage healthy Sustainable Living.

In fact, with wonderful benefits like those, doesn’t it make sense to live every day like it’s Earth Day?

Well, you can. Over the years, We used Earth Day as a starting point to implement new and Green changes in our lives. Here are Some ways we celebrate Earth Day that you and your family can try too.
Some of them may seem small, and personal changes are no substitute for systemic reform — but small changes do add up, and if you sustain those changes for the rest of your life, they can profoundly lighten your environmental footprint and help make the Earth a better, cleaner and greener place to live.

Adopt a Tree

A single tree can absorb up to 20 Kgs of carbon dioxide every year. If you live in an apartment, get a small, indoor-friendly Yucca, kaffir lime, Madagascar dragon, or bonsai are other small trees that thrive indoors. Keep in mind that if you have pets, it’s best to double-check that the tree you select isn’t toxic to them. If you are Lazy and often forget to water your plants, bring home succulents, these plants require little to no watering .
SolarOcta Recommendation is to bring a ALOE VERA plant indoors , it cleans the Air and can be used to make healthy concoctions with it’s gel.

Plant Flowers

Native flowers look beautiful and they provide pollen and nectar for pollinators like bees and Hornets. Even better, locally-sourced flowers are typically low maintenance because they’re accustomed to your climate.

Saving Energy

A lot of us Need to check our habits and take actions to reduce our energy footprints.
going to another Room, for catching up on live match – ” switch off your Fans and lights” and enjoy your match.
Don’t let those Precious Resources Burn in Vain.

Seal the Door

A little air flow is a good thing but too much can work against your Air conditioning units. Install a draft stopper on your door and seal up major cracks or leaks where you can. It’ll help you save on cooling costs and keep pests out of your house.

Take Cooler, Shorter Showers

In other words, it requires a lot of energy to heat water for a shower or bath. Taking a cooler, shorter shower can reduce energy use. As an added bonus, cold showers may help you feel more alert and reduce feelings of fatigue.

 Install a Smart Thermostat

Depending on where you live, central air conditioning might account for as much as 50% of your energy use. To reduce waste, consider installing a smart, programmable thermostat. These devices shut off automatically when you’re away and have other built-in features that facilitate efficient heating and cooling.
You can Practice this method in your Home with your window Air Conditioner as well , Keep the Thermostat Setting at 20 to 24 degree Celsius range ,
WHY you ask ?
all an Air Conditioner Does is Recirculate the Air in the room , extracting of Heat in every cycle , when you have been inside the AC room for a while , your body is much more cooler than it was before and you would adapt to 24 degree much faster , and be comfortable with the temperature set as it’s cooler than outside scorching summer heat waves.
Your AC life is extended , Bills are Reduced , and you won’t get that Headache from coming in and out of a AC room.

Saving WATER

If you live in a city , you might already know the importance and price of clean potable drinking water .
You use RO filters , buy bottled water , even pay for water bills .
not everyone is as lucky to have clean water availability .
Reduce your water consumption, while doing chores .
That Car Wash on sunday can wait , a simple wipe down with a damp cloth is okay for another week .
don’t leave your taps running , do i even need to mention this .
water conservation is important and with falling ground table , this is an issue everyone should actively take actions to solve .
else
we all heard about the news of Cape town capping Water consumption , and our Indian cities like Bangalore following behind.
Ensure Water Security and practice this to preach !

 Check Your Fridge

If you frequently find half-frozen produce or leftovers in the fridge, you’re ruining your food and wasting energy. Set your fridge between 2 to 4 degree Celsius range to  reduce unnecessary energy use and keep your food fresh and unfrozen.

earthday footprints picture

Keep Cool, Naturally

Consuming something cold is a great way to cool down. Stay hydrated. If it’s hot out, shed some layers and drink iced water or tea. Or, blend together and freeze organic frozen fruit to make a homemade sorbet.

Turn on the Fan

It’s easy to reach for the air conditioner when it’s too warm but, next time the heat gets too much, turn on a fan instead. Even the most efficient air conditioners account for a significant portion of your monthly energy expenditure. Fans use a tiny fraction of this energy.

 

It’s Cold Outside – Put on a Sweater

If the house feels a little chilly, put on a sweater, warm socks, and cozy sweatpants. Prepare some herbal tea or a homemade soup rather than turning on the heater.

 

Let There be Sunlight!

Open up the curtains and blinds to let in more natural light whenever possible. More than just conserving energy, sunlight helps your body produce vitamin D and strengthens your immune system.

 

Reuse Glass Containers

Before you recycle your glass bottles and jars, think about how you can reuse them. Large jars are great for salads and soups, small ones are the perfect size to measure portions of nuts and dressings. You can even reuse the dropper bottles from other products; just wash them out when you’re finished with them, and use them to hold or blend your favorite Homemade “Achaar pickles and Jams ”

Check Your Tire Pressure

Improve fuel efficiency and lower your pollution footprint by keeping your tires properly inflated. It’s also a good strategy for prolonging the life of your tires and, in turn, saving money.

Walk or Bike to Work

Not only is walking or biking to work great exercise, it reduces your pollution footprint. It can also be good for your mind — people that commute by car experience greater stress than people who walk, bike, and use public transportation, so it’s in your best interest to take a stroll to work. As a bonus, you’ll also get a little exercise and some much-needed sunshine on your way.

Start a Carpool

If you have to drive, consider carpooling with coworkers in your neighborhood. You’ll help reduce pollution, decrease traffic congestion, and you get the bonus of social interaction before and after work. Studies report that talking to friends and coworkers offers substantial health benefits.

3R Reduce, reuse , recycle – protect your Habitat .

Support Sustainable Businesses

If you can buy it, there’s an eco-friendly version of it. Support companies that use sustainable practices, ingredients, and packaging in their products. Many businesses have started incorporating recycled or upcycled materials into their products.

Get a Reusable Water Bottle

Disposable, plastic water bottles may be convenient but they release toxic plasticizers and hardeners that make their way into your body and the environment. Plastic does not degrade easily, and it may take up to 1,000 years to decompose. Recycling is also a one-time-only process,

“Conventional recycling programs are ineffective at best; only two types of plastic are widely recyclable, and even then, it’s downgraded into other products which cannot be recycled further, eventually ending up in landfill, or worse, in the ocean, where plastic seriously harms wildlife, the ecosystem and our health. … It’s naive to think the material will disappear all together.”

Instead of using plastic, buy a reusable water bottle made of glass and fill it with purified water every time you leave the house. It’s a habit that will reduce waste, and taking a water bottle wherever will encourage you to drink water more often and stay hydrated.

Take a Mug to Work

Disposable cups are convenient but using them is a tremendous source of waste. Even worse, most of the disposable cups you use every day are not recyclable and contain objectionable chemicals like styrene (found in Styrofoam), which is linked to neurological effects. Skip the disposable cups and bring your own mug to work. There are many nice options that are made with non-toxic materials.
Well
Who doesn’t like sipping their favorite hot beverage from a good heavy ceramic mug . I personally am a CHAI over coffee kinda person , who has a different mug for everyday of the week . MUG COLLECTION !

I’d like to end this article with my personal favourite ,

Unplug and Go Outside

Today, too many people spend too much time indoors consuming media in some form or another — usually electronic. A climate-controlled environment requires energy to maintain, as do devices. Do yourself and the planet a favor by powering down, going outside, and enjoying nature with your friends and family. You don’t need to get on a plane to have an adventure. There might be some local undiscovered spot that will become your new retreat. National parks and nature preserves are resources many people don’t take advantage of and, unfortunately, parks that don’t receive a lot of visitors are at risk of being de-funded, developed, or mined of their natural resources. Plan a visit to a less popular park to help protect its funding and maintenance.

Also , I’d like to mention , That there are various other ways you can reduce your Carbon Footprints , Help Make this planet Cleaner and Greener .
I could Pitch you shifting to Solar Power for your Electricity needs at day time , composting bins for your kitchen waste , bio gas plants , rain water harvesting and a lot more creative and high end technologies ,
BUT ,
I didn’t ,
why ?
Because you can make a difference to help save this planet , without spending another penny to invest in green technologies and still help make a difference .
This article was Focused to Inculcate the Thought process of going Green with your thinking and creativity .

If you liked the article , help spread the word for creative actions which if implemented in the long run , could directly reduce your footprints , and encourage other to live a sustainable life aswell .

like , Comment and Share with your Near and Dear ones – Wishing them a Very “Happy EARTH Day 2018 ” .

SolarOcta Wishes you a very Happy Earth Day .
hope you’ll implement some green practices 😀

Peace , conscious for going green.

Thanks 😀

 

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Working Principle of Solar Panels ? Solar PV ?

With Developing Renewable Energy sources ,
The most Famous one is a Solar PV panel,
Also referred as Solar Plate.

What is a Solar PV cell and How Does it Work ?
It involves Some Neat Physics , Chemistry and Mathematical Trick .

Let’s Learn how !

 

Conversion of light energy in electrical energy is based on a phenomenon called photovoltaic effect.
Thus the name – Solar PV –
PV means Photo Voltaics !

When semiconductor materials are exposed to light, the some of the photons of light ray are absorbed by the semiconductor crystal which causes significant number of free electrons in the crystal.

This is the basic reason of producing electricity due to photovoltaic effect.

Photovoltaic cell is the basic unit of the system where photovoltaic effect is utilized to produce electricity from light energy. Silicon is the most widely used semiconductor material for constructing photovoltaic cell.

The silicon atom has four valence electrons. In a solid crystal, each silicon atom shares each of its four valence electrons with another nearest silicon atom hence creating covalent bond between them.

In this way silicon crystal gets a tetrahedral lattice structure. While light ray strikes on any materials some portion of light is reflected, some portion is transmitted through the materials and rest is absorbed by the materials.

Same thing happens when light falls on silicon crystal. If the intensity of incident light is high enough, sufficient numbers of photons are absorbed by the crystal and these photons in turn excite some of the electrons of covalent bonds.
These excited electrons then get sufficient energy to migrate from valence band to conduction band. As the energy level of these electrons is in conduction band they leave from the covalent bond leaving a hole in the bond behind each removed electron.

Too much to understand ,
Read Further,

These are called free electrons move randomly inside the crystal structure of the silicon. These free electrons and holes have vital role in creating electricity in photovoltaic cell.
These electrons and holes are hence called light-generated electrons and holes respectively.

These light generated electrons and holes cannot produce electricity in the silicon crystal alone. There should be some additional mechanism to do that.

When a pentavalent impurity such as phosphorus is added to silicon the four valence electrons of each pentavalent phosphorous atom are shared through covalent bond with four neighbor silicon atoms and fifth valence electron does not get any chance to create covalent bond.

This fifth electron then relatively loosely bounded with its parent atom.
Even in room temperature the thermal energy available in the crystal is large enough to disassociate these relatively loose fifth electrons from their parent phosphorus atom. While this fifth relatively loose electron is disassociated from parent phosphorus atom, the phosphorous atom immobile positive ions.

The said disassociated electron becomes free but does not have any incomplete covalent bond or hole in the crystal to be re-associated. These free electrons come from pentavalent impurity are always ready to conduct current in semiconductor.
Although,


there are numbers of free electrons but still the substance is electrically neutral as the number of positive phosphorous ions locked inside the crystal structure is exactly equal to the number of the free electrons come out from them.

The process of inserting impurities in the semiconductor is known as doping and the impurities are doped are known as dopants. The pentavalent dopants which donate their fifth free electron to the semiconductor crystal are known as donor. The semiconductors doped by donor impurities are known as n-type or negative type semiconductor as there are plenty of free electrons which are negatively charged by nature.

When instead pentavalent phosphorous atoms, trivalent impurity atoms like boron are added to a semiconductor crystal totally opposite type of semiconductor will be created.
In this case some silicon atoms in the crystal lattice will be replaced by boron atoms in other words the boron atoms will occupy the positions of replaced silicon atoms in lattice structure. Three valance electrons of boron atom will pair with valance electron of three neighbor silicon atoms to create three complete covalent bonds.
For this configuration there will be a silicon atom for each boron atom, fourth valance electron of which will not find any neighbor valance electrons to complete its fourth covalent bond.

Hence this fourth valance electron of these silicon atoms remains unpaired and behaves as incomplete bond. So there will be lack of one electron in the incomplete bond and hence an incomplete bond always attracts electron to fulfill this lack. As such there is a vacancy for electron to sit.

This vacancy is conceptually called positive hole.

Check this Video out

In a trivalent impurity doped semiconductor a significant number of covalent bonds are continually broken to complete other incomplete covalent bond.

When one bond is broken one hole is created in it.

When one bond in completed, the hole in it disappears.

In this way one hole appears to disappear another neighbor hole. As such holes are having relative motion inside the semiconductor crystal.

In the view of that it can said that holes also can move freely as free electrons inside semiconductor crystal.

As each of the holes can accept electron, the trivalent impurities are known as acceptor dopants and the semiconductors doped with acceptor dopants are known as p-type or positive type semiconductor.

In n-type semiconductor mainly the free electrons carry negative charge and in p-type semiconductor mainly the holes in turn carry positive charge therefore free electrons in n-type semiconductor and free holes in p-type semiconductor are called majority carrier in n-type semiconductor and p-type semiconductor respectively.

There is always a potential barrier between n-type and p-type material.

This potential barrier is essential for working of a photovoltaic or solar cell.

While n-type semiconductor and p-type semiconductor contact each other, the free electrons near to the contact surface of n-type semiconductor get plenty of adjacent holes of p-type material.

Hence free electrons in n type semiconductor near to its contact surface jump to the adjacent holes of p-type material to recombine. Not only free electrons, valence electrons of n-type material near the contact surface also come out from the covalent bond and recombine with more nearby holes in p-type semiconductor.

As the covalent bonds are broken, there will be number of holes created in n-type material near the contact surface.

Hence,
near contact zone the holes in the p-type materials disappear due to recombination on the other hand holes appear in n-type material near same contact zone. This is as such equivalent to a migration of holes from p-type to n-type semiconductor. So as soon as one n-type semiconductor and one p-type semiconductor come into contact the electrons from n-type will transfer to p-type and holes from p-type will transfer to n-type. The process is very fast but does not continue forever. After some instant there will be layer of negative charge (excess electrons) in the p-type semiconductor adjacent to the contact along the contact surface. Similarly there will be a layer of positive charge (positive ions) in the n-type semiconductor adjacent to contact along the contact surface. The thickness of these negative and positive charge layer increases up to a certain extend but after that no more electrons will migrate from n-type semiconductor to p-type semiconductor. This is because, while any electron of n-type semiconductor try to migrate over p-type semiconductor it faces a sufficiently thick layer of positive ions in n-type semiconductor itself where it will drop without crossing it. Similarly hole will no more migrate to n-type semiconductor from p-type. The holes when try to cross the negative layer in p-type semiconductor these will recombine with electrons and no more movement toward n-type region.

In other words, negative charge layer in p-type side and positive charge layer in n-type side together form a barrier which opposes migration of charge carriers from its one side to other. Similarly, holes in the p-type region are held back from entering the n-type region. Due to positive and negative charged layer there will be an electric field across the region and this region is called depletion layer.

Now let us come to the silicon crystal. When light ray strikes on the crystal some portion of the light is absorbed by the crystal and consequently some of the valance electrons are excited and come out from the covalent bond resulting free electron-hole pairs.

If light strikes on n-type semiconductor the electrons from such light-generated electron-hole pairs are unable to migrate to p-region since they are not able to cross the potential barrier due to repulsion of electric field across depletion layer. At the same time the light-generated holes cross the depletion region due to attraction of electric field of depletion layer where they recombine with electrons and then the lack of electrons here is compensated by valance electrons of p-region and this makes as many number of holes in the p-region. As such light generated holes are shifted to p-region where they are trapped because once they come to the p-region cannot be able to come back to n-type region due to repulsion of potential barrier.

As the negative charge (light generated electrons) is trapped in one side and positive charge (light generated holes) is trapped in opposite side of a cell there will be a potential difference between these two sides of the cell. This potential difference is typically 0.5 V.

This is how a photovoltaic cells or solar cells produce potential difference.

So,
This was a article, for how a Silicon based solar cell works .

Heard about Mono crystalline & poly crystalline ?
we’ll be covering those cells next .

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